Enumerators play a crucial role in the success of field-based impact evaluations. Despite the central role they play in the research process, enumerators are rarely in the spotlight. We recently interviewed a few enumerators working with us on a high-frequency market survey in Rwanda in the context of a rural feeder road upgrading project.
As China transitions from pursuing high-speed growth at any cost to a growth model that focuses on sustainability, inclusivity, and efficiency, cities like Chongqing are a critical part of this new urbanization strategy.
How to do Implicit Association Test?
Implicit Association Tests (IATs) are being increasingly used in applied micro papers. While IATs can be found , designing your own IAT may allow you to get at respondents’ implicit attitudes towards something more contextual. We added a custom IAT to a survey of commuters in Rio de Janeiro, and here we'll go over the practical steps involved. For our project, we wanted to measure male and female commuters’ implicit attitudes towards women riding the subway on the co-ed car relative to women riding the women’s-only car. The idea was to quantify the stigma women may face for not using gender-segregated spaces.
Overcrowded, dirty, and disorderly cities undermine residents’ health as much as their happiness. With urbanization occurring at an unprecedented rate, there is an urgent need for careful planning, collaboration, communication, and consensus.
SINGAPORE – Dante’s Divine Comedy describes one level of hell (the City of Dis) as“Satan’s wretched city … full of distress and torment terrible.” He could well have been describing many modern-day metropolises.
The world, especially Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, is experiencing a massive wave of urbanization. And yet it is occurring largely in the absence of urban planning, with even those municipalities that attempt to create plans often failing to enforce them effectively or account properly for the needs of the majority. The result is overcrowded, dirty, and disorderly cities that undermine residents’ health and happiness.
Close to 90% of this increase will take place in Asia and Africa. While this bodes well for economic agglomerations, many cities are constrained by livability. Pressure on land resources and urban space is immense in Asia and Africa, with high population densities, leading to congestion, low-quality urban environment, pollution, and low safety.
The core long-term solution to such challenges requires land use and physical planning at different scales, from the national level to the metropolitan, city, neighborhood, and all the way down to the street level. Such an approach can ensure a functioning labor market where a maximum number of jobs can be reached by all citizens, while creating inclusive, livable, and vibrant urban areas.
Two approaches to building sustainable cities
This blog highlights the findings from the recent
Bela Balassa worked for the World Bank from 1966 till his death in 1991. Luckily, his insights on international integration, revealed comparative advantages, trade diversion, and natural progress toward political integration have outlived him.
And what Bela is best-known for—and rightfully so—is the Balassa-Samuelson effect.
Put simply, this effect explains why a haircut or a restaurant meal is much cheaper in poor countries than in rich countries whereas the price tag for a car or a television is almost the same everywhere.
What’s behind this phenomenon is simple and can be summed up in three parts.
Second, the prices of non-tradable goods like haircuts can differ.
And third, the difference in productivity across countries is much more significant in tradable goods than in non-tradable goods. For example, a barber in Dhaka needs roughly the same amount of time as a barber in New York to cut my hair.
But manufacturers or farmers in Nepal need more labor to produce the same output than their counterparts in Germany.
After improvements were made to a local road, Swapna Akhter, a Community Woman in Kalmakanda, Netrokona, can take patients more conveniently to the nearby hospital. Similarly, Ibrahim Talukder, Chairman of a Union Parishad in Fatikchari, Chittagong, has found that the cost of getting to the local health complex has substantially reduced after the paving of a local road.
These stories demonstrate the intrinsic link between transport and human capital development. This connection is perhaps most obvious in rural areas, where improved mobility has transformed countless lives by unlocking economic opportunities and expanding access to essential services like healthcare or education.
The ongoing Second Rural Transport Improvement Project (RTIP-II) in Bangladesh is a case in point. We talked to several beneficiaries of the project—which supports road expansion and upgrading, and rural market development in 26 districts across the country, and the dredging of local waterways on a pilot basis—to understand how better connectivity had impacted their lives.
- South Asia
- Agriculture and Rural Development
- Labor and Social Protection
- Social Development
- Sustainable Communities
- sustainable transport
- sustainable mobility
- Human Capital
- Human Capital Project
- human development
- rural roads
- roads and highways
- transport accessibility
- Impact evaluation
- access to transport
For example, Sub-Saharan Africa is largely rural, but is also the region with the fastest urbanization rates. Currently, almost 40 percent of the people live in cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, but this is expected to grow to . So while urbanization provides economic and social opportunity, it can overburden traditional municipal resource and service delivery approaches.
This blog is part of a series that discusses a way forward for South Asian regional integration.
That South Asia is brimming with possibilities for economic growth is . It’s what drove us to write . .
What we weren’t prepared for, however, was the overwhelmingly positive response the report received across the region. Government officials, members of the private sector, civil society, and particularly young people we met with were eager to learn more about how their countries could improve trade relations with their neighbors.
despite political circumstances that make it seem impossible.
In Pakistan, which suffers the biggest welfare loss because of non-cooperation, A Glass Half Full hit home in a variety of ways.
The country can increase its intraregional trade almost 8-fold, from $5.1 billion to $39.7 billion. This resounded with audiences at launch events in Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi, evoking a sense of loss for the missed opportunity. They asked how Pakistan and other countries could amend their discriminatory policies and enjoy the benefits of free trade.
Politics often trumps economic cooperation in South Asia, but many in Pakistan suggested politics wins because the cost is so low. If intraregional trade were to increase, lobbies would arise to protect those interests.
A week before our report’s launch, Pakistan and India had initiated the to facilitate visa-free visits for Indian pilgrims to Pakistan’s Sikh holy sites. This had locals brainstorming more initiatives for regional integration.
As a transport specialist – and an avid motorist – I travel across Azerbaijan on a regular basis, both for business and pleasure. As such, I can attest that the country’s road infrastructure, particularly along its main transport corridors, has significantly improved over the past 15 years.